Optymalizacja dozowania flokulantów w procesie sedymentacji zawiesiny kaolinu
OPTIMIZATION OF THE FLOCCULANTS DOSAGE IN THE SEDIMENTATION PROCESS OF KAOLIN SUSPENSION OF KAOLIN SUSPENSION
The paper presents results of research on sedimentation process of kaolin suspension. The researches have been carried out in the systems containing single nonionic (PAA) or cationic (PDDA) polymer or their mixture, using nephelometry and microphotography. It was stated, that turbidity of suspension is associated to quantity of polymers. The optimal quantities of polymers (i.e. such that accelerate kaolin particles settling rate and ensure the best final clarity of kaolin suspension) have been estimated. In excess of the optimal concentration of polymer substances the efficacy of sedimentation process decreases. The influence of dosage method of polymers on efficacy of sedimentation process has been investigated as well. It was stated, to accelerate sedimentation process of kaolin suspension the usage of PDDA and nonionic PAA mixture in the ratio 1:1 is beneficial. The microscopic researches have shown the dependence between different sediment structures and efficacy of sedimentation process. Sedimentation process occurs by coagulation or flocculation mechanism.
Key words: flocculants, PDDA, PAA, kaolin, sedimentation
A. Kaniewska str. 111
Wtórna emisja pyłów na terenie semirekreacyjnym
THE SECONDARY DUST EMISSION ON THE RURAL AREAS
The level of air pollution in the touristic area of Szczyrk is influenced by the volume and type of emission of household and road dust (including dust from parking lots and playground) as well as by the increase in traffic during weekends and summer tourism period. Thanks to the examination of secondary dust emission in Szczyrk it was possible to establish the level of particulate matter, the coefficient of secondary dust emission during weekends and the periods of low traffic and windy weather. In order to fully present the negative impact of secondary emission on humans and environment, the ratio of air pollution with various chemical elements was calculated. With the use of AAS method, the amount of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Co in the dust was determined. The additional air contamination levels were significant and varied from 6% for Co up to 82% for Cd. The additional doses of metals that were subject to examination were found to be present in the following amounts: Pb – 389 µg, Cd – 192 µg, Ni – 396 µg, Mn – 76 µg, Co – 5 µg, Cr – 17µg, Fe – 418 µg, Zn – 6428 µg, Cu – 443 µg.
As proved by the examination, not only general particulate matter level but also the types of chemical elements contained within it have toxicological significance. In result, due to secondary dust emission to the ground air layer, each gram of emitted road dust results in the increased amount of certain chemical elements by respective doses. It is, therefore, worth to emphasize the detrimental effect of additional high levels of secondary emitted dust on the quality of environment of Szczyrk as a semi–recreational area.
Key words: suspended dust, rural environmental, secondary emission, heavy metals, exposure people
J. Kwapuliński, J. Kowol, G. Librowska, K. Będkowska, K. Kwiecień, U. Oleśków, M. Swoboda,
P. Z. Brewczyński str. 116
Rozmieszczenie „gatunków specjalnej troski” na tle warunków siedliskowych i zagospodarowania na przykładzie majątku Rogalin koło Poznania
DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES UNDER SPECIAL CARE IN MAJĄTEK ROGALIN ON A BACKGROUND OF HABITAT CONDITIONS AND MANAGEMENT
The Majątek Rogalin is situated 17 miles south of Poznan. The aristocratic residence and palace park as well as the largest cluster of old oaks, more than 1400 specimens, which are protected since 1991 and are natural monuments are the most known. It consist of nearly 200 hectares of grasslands, traditionally called ‘Rogalin Łęgi’, located on the Warta River floodplain (the habitat of potential flooded riparian forests: Salicetum albae and Populetum albae); wide complexes of forests similar to the natural character (riparian elm–ash and oak–hornbeam forest); forest secondary communities, mainly with pine, located on the edge of valley and on the upland and also fields with the area 400 hectares, with thick net of afforestations, related with oak–hornbeam forest habitat.
The aim of the study was to answer to the questions: what type of landscape protected and endangered species focus on and what actions do not conflict with agricultural production contribute to maintaining their positions. In Majatek Rogalin have been found 19 species uder special protectrion, in total. The largest number of species (15) were found within floodplain, dominated by grasslands. Five positions of protected species have been found here, including 1 under strict protection. There are 11 regionally endangered species, while in the whole country – 9. Also 4 protected taxa have been found in forest complexes: 2 species are endangered in the country and 2 in the region. Mostly positions is related with riparian forests at the foot of slope and on the edge of the valley. On the upland have been found only two location of species and also one described in the Polish Red List on the edge of fields.
The results show that the riparian forest habitats with an extensive farming or some left forest fragments are the least anthropogenically transformed and majority of the species under special protection focuses there. The least species were on the fields.
Natural and cultural values, especially the extensive floodplain in the Rogalin region, was noticed a long time ago and was reflected in numerous publications and proposals protection. Currently these are: Rogaliński Nature Park, Landscape–Nature Protected Complex of Łęgi Rogalin, Natura 2000 areas – Rogalińska Warta Valley and Special Protection Area: Rogalińska Ostoja with Wielkopolski National Park.
The Majątek Rogalin implements environmental programs, which means that agricultural activity is subordinated to the nature conservation. In relation to grasslands are imposed deadlines and manner of pratotechnic practices. Active protection and the maintaining of traditional way of development, contribute to the preservation of existing natural values.
Key words: Majątek Rogalin, protected species, flora, Warta Valley
H. Ratyńska, E.Wachowiak str. 122
Reakcja pszenicy orkisz na zastosowane nawożenie mineralne
RESPONSE OF SPELT TO APPLIED MINERAL FERTILIZATION
The aim of this study was to estimate the response of spelt cv. Rokosz to the application of varied rates of nitrogen (n=6) and different variants of fertilization with microelements (n=5). It was found that fertilization with rates within the range 20–100 kg N·ha–1 resulted in significant average increase in the grain yield quantity, as compared with the control, and significantly determined the contents of copper and zinc in it. On average, significantly the highest copper content was found after the application of 20 kg N·ha–1. Each increase in the level of nitrogen fertilization resulted in average decrease in zinc content and this was significant as compared with the control after the application of rates above 20 kg N·ha–1. Of the studied variants of fertilization with microelements, the highest average grain yield was obtained from the treatments where only zinc was applied, and this was significantly higher as compared with the values obtained from the treatments fertilized only with copper, only with manganese, and with no fertilization. The highest average content of cooper was found in grain from the treatment fertilized only with copper, and this was significantly higher as compared with the content from the treatments with the application of only manganese and with combined Cu+Mn+Zn application. Application of both individual and combined microelements, resulted in on average a significant decrease in zinc content, as compared with the control, and this was the highest after the application of manganese, whereas the lowest after combined Cu+Zn+Mn fertilization. The highest average content of manganese in spelt grain was obtained from the treatment fertilized only with copper and this was significantly higher as compared with treatments fertilized only with zinc and with all combined microelements.
Key words: grain yield, nitrogen fertilization, microelements fertilization, Triticum spelta L., micronutrient (Cu Zn, Mn) content in the grain
T. Knapowski, E. Spychaj–Fabisiak, W. Kozera, B. Barczak, B. Murawska, K. Nowak str. 129
Metody przygotowania płytek obwodów drukowanych ze zużytego sprzętu elektrycznego i elektronicznego (ZSEIE) do analizy zawartości metali metodą atomowej spektrometrii absorpcyjnej (ASA)
METHODS FOR THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS FROM WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT (WEEE) PREPARATION FOR ANALYSIS OF METAL CONTENT BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY (AAS)
Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing amount of waste of this type as well as the demand by various industries for metals, including precious metals such as silver, gold, platinum, palladium or copper. The paper presents a comparison of four sample preparation methods for analysis of copper and iron by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for printed circuit boards from WEEE. In the procedure of sample preparation for analysis, the effect of proportions of acids used for extraction and the impact of sample combustion before extraction on the final content of analyzed elements have been studied. The results of X–ray analysis of samples of printed circuit boards showed that the dominant elements were copper and iron. It was shown that the determined amount of copper and iron depended on the method of sample preparation, namely the application of combustion prior to leaching of metals and proportions of acids used for the extraction. As a result of analysis performed by AAS, it was found that the amount of copper determined in printed circuit boards subjected to combustion prior to extraction was up to 48.2%, whereas for the same waste subjected only to grinding, copper content was up to 27%. In the case of iron, the determined amount of this element was 4.5% in samples after extraction of residue after roasting and to 2.2% in samples only comminuted prior to extraction. It results from the thermogravimetric analysis that the most intense conversions associated with loss in weight occur in the temperature range from 220 to 520°C in case of Sample 1 and from 230 to 470° C for Sample 2.
Key words: waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), printed circuit boards, extraction, copper, iron
A. Karczmarek str. 135
Ocena skuteczności diet redukcyjnych
ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS REDUCTION DIETS
Overweight and obesity is a health and social problem of the modern world. Body weight problem is solved mainly by the use of appropriate dietary recommendations. Recently observed great popularity of alternative–reducing diets. The aim of this study was to determine the type of reduction diets and their assess of the effectiveness. The study population consisted of 132 people who applied and still use reduction diet. The study was conducted using the diagnostic survey method with the aid of a survey written by the author themselves. Assessment of nutritional condition of the population showed a high percentage of people with overweight (59.9%), including 32.6% with obesity. The average BMI for the study population was more than 26 kg/m2. After a diet average BMI was reduced to x =24.63±5.07 kg/m2. Respondents used the different diets and indicated the different effects. Factors significantly affecting the size of the reduction was mainly overweight, education and age of the respondents. Attention was drawn to the variability of diets and time of their application. In the test group of 49.2% of the respondents observed to return to their body weight before treatment. The most common reasons for discontinuation of treatment were inconvenience and fatigue, to achieve the desired effect, the difficulty of adapting diet to the order of the day and work, lack of patience and lack of expected results. There is a need education on how to apply and the selection of physiological diets, whose effectiveness is investigated, and the effects last.
Key words: overweight, obesity, reducing diet, alternative diet, weight loss
W. Kozirok str. 142
Ocena energochłonności cyklu istnienia lądowej elektrowni wiatrowej typu Vestas V100
EVALUATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN LIFE CYCLE OF LAND WIND TURBINE TYPE VESTAS V100
Today, there is a systematic increase in energy consumption resulting from the economic development of Asian countries. Production of energy from renewable sources can significantly meet part of the still growing demand, and energy produced is cheap and environmentally “clean”. Obtaining energy from renewable energy sources, including wind processors, however, it is burdened with some energy expenditure that should be considered when evaluating the efficiency of energy production. The paper presents the results of life–cycle energy consumption of the wind turbine type Vestas V100 with their interpretation. For the evaluation used computer–aided tools of life cycle assessment studies: program Sima Pro and SolidWorks Sustainability and the method of CED, CML and IPCC, specifying the amount of total energy consumption in a life cycle of a wind power plant.
Key words: assessment of energy consumption, CED method, the method of CML, wind turbine, SolidWorks Sustainability, life cycle of a wind turbine
I. Piasecka, W. Kruszelnicka, P. Ropińska, A. Tomporowski str. 149
Analiza wpływu dużej siłowni wiatrowej na zdrowie człowieka
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF LARGE WIND TURBINE ON HUMAN HEALTH
Every year observed increase in wind power installations largely due to the prevailing trends in the EU and the target to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Undoubtedly, the emergence of new wind turbines contributes to the reduction of CO2 emitted, but due to the growing number of new facilities, there are concerns about the impact operated devices on human health. As one of the most serious adverse impacts points to the generation of audible noise as well as infra– and ultra–sound, vibration emissions, the phenomenon of shadow flicker and stroboscopic effect. Another aspect is also the emissions of harmful substances into the environment during the entire life cycle of a wind turbine from the production process, installation, operation on land to postcosumer development a usable elements. For the purpose of the work was conducted impact studies of wind turbine with power 2 MW on human health in one cycle of its existence. The tests were performed using Sima Pro, method LCA and Ecoindicator 99. The results of the analyzes are summarized in the paper.
Key words: method LCA, Ecoindicator 99, wind turbine, Sima Pro, harmful gasses emission
A. Tomporowski, I. Piasecka, W. Kruszelnicka, P. Ropińska str. 153