Typologia gospodarstw świadczących usługi agroturystyczne i ich charakterystyka na przykładzie województwa kujawsko–pomorskiego
FARMS TYPOLOGY PROVIDING AGROTOURISM SERVICE AND THEIR CHARACTERISTIC
TAKING KUJAWSKO–POMORSKIE PROVINCE AS AN EXAMPLE
Farms typology allowed to show typical agrotouristic farms and not agrotouristic farms – in accordance with this paper’s purpose. Many lodgings have given up the agricultural production. In accordance with established criterion they can be qualified to the rural tourist units. It can be said that the concept „agrotourism” is not correctly interpreted. The offer presented by these farms probably is and will be incorrectly perceived by the customers of his kind of rest. It is important to draw attention to these activities, because there is no reason to introduce chaos and confusion on consumers market. It is worth mentioning that half of the farms have middle–sized structure of agrarian area for agrotouristic functions. Characteristic of plants and animals production in farms showed the farms’ activity. Attraction of studied area for tourist was estimated as the average.s
J. Cichowska str. 107
Pompy ciepła jako efektywne odnawialne źródło energii
HEAT PUMPS AS AN EFFICIENT SOURCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
E. Baumgart*, J.B. Flizikowski str. 116
One source of renewable geothermal energy is derived from the Earth’s interior. The development of technology and ever deeper studies contributed to the unbundling of energy geothermal low–temperature energy, which begins to grow rapidly with heat pumps. This field of technology investors particularly interested in newly built houses. The heat pump they perceive the cost–effectiveness, efficiency, and ever wider circles, especially the local community that promote the field of technology, which in some European Union countries is considered a renewable source of energy.
Key words: geothermal low–temperature, heat pump, renewable energy
Niepewności w kwestii CO2 na tle globalnego ocieplenia
UNCERTAINTY ABOUT CO2 IN GLOBAL WARMING BACKGROUND
Carbon dioxide is a well–known gas, which participates in the photosynthesis process. In recent years however, CO2 became considered the factor which mainly contributes to the global warming effect. The fight against CO2 emission has become, perhaps, the most important element of EU policy. Introducing a correlation between anthropogenic impact on global warming with the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has resulted in a rise of emission reduction warrants, which resulted in signing the Kyoto Protocol and the creation of the emission trading market. It is well known, however, that CO2 has a lesser impact on the greenhouse effect than, for example, CH4, or even H2O. Therefore, is the belief about the dangers of excessive CO2 emissions really justified? What is the real impact of this gas on our lives? This paper attempts to answer these questions which puzzle us today.
Key words: greenhouse effect, global warming, human–induced contribution, precautionary principle
W. M. Lewandowski, E. Radziemska, M. Ryms, P. Meler str. 120
Wpływ działalności człowieka na zmiany układu koryta
w dolnym odcinku Obry – przykład zastosowania metody georadarowej
INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC INTEVENTIONS ON RIVER PATTERN CHANGES IN THE LOWER COURSE OF THE OBRA RIVER: THE EXAMPLE OF USING GPR METHOD
The Obra river valley is the example of intensive anthropogenic interventions. Analysis of archival cartographic materials has shown that hydro technical works were also done in the lower course of the river. Between Rybojady and Policko village, the course of the obra river bed is close to rectilinear because of artificial cutting off meander bends in th 19th century. Research regarding to reconstruction of natural course of the river was conducted in the vicinity of Siercz village. Measurements of structure of alluvial deposits were done using georadar MALA ProEx equipped with 100MHz and 250MHz shielded antennas. Lithologic variability of sediments was recognized through geologic surveys to determine the types of deposits, which were featured with distinct reflexes on echograms. The study has shown that records of former functioning of the Obra river bed were preserved in floodplain deposits. Traces of at least three river beds filled with organic deposits were detected here. It may represent migration phases of one river bed or refer to simultaneous functioning of network of water courses within research area. It was also possible to determine the boundary between alluvial and fluvioglacial deposits, which surround investigated section of the Obra river valley.
Key words: GPR method, the Obra river, anthropogenic impact
M. Słowik str. 128
Skład chemiczny i mikroflora kiszonki z sorgo zakiszanej z dodatkiem biologicznym
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MICROFLORA OF SILAGE FROM SORGHUM ENSILAGE WITH BIOLOGICAL ADDITIVE
aim of these studies was to ascertain the influence of biological
additive (B) of the cell counts of lactic acid bacteria,
Enterobacteriaceae, mould fungi and yeasts in sorghum silage. The silage
was prepared from sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) Sucrosorgo 506
(Syngenta–Sedds). The effect of the applied additive on silage was
ascertained. The performed chemical analyses comprised the determination
of: the content of dry matter, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC),
butyric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, crude protein, ethanol and pH.
The applied biological preparation (B) was found to reduce numbers of
yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae and increased count of lactic acid
bacteria. The yeasts cell count decreased (P<0.05) from 4,42 cfu 104
g–1 DM in the control (CSS – control sorghum silage) to 2,03 cfu 104 g–1
DM in combination with biological additive (B). The applied inoculant
increased (P<0.05) the content of dry matter, lactic acid, and
decreased (P<0.05) concentration of WSC, etanol. Zearalenone content
in fresh crop was higher (2,39 μg kg –1) than sorghum silages (CSS –
0,05 μg kg–1 and B – 0,04 μg kg–1). The biological additive do not
influence of the zearalenon concentration in silages.
Key words: zearalenon, silages, sorghum
M. Selwet str. 139
Optymalizacja procesu odżelaziania wody w Zakładach Celulozowo–Papierniczych MONDI Świecie S.A.
OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS OF REMOVING IRON FROM WATER IN MONDI ŚWIECIE S.A.
iron ions from model water solutions was performed using coagulation
process. Lime milk together with commercial ferric coagulants (PIX) and
aluminium coagulants (PAX) were used. At first efficiencies of PIX and
PAX reagents having equal contents of trivalent cation were compared. It
has been found that the aluminium coagulant removes the iron ions from
water markedly better then the iron coagulant. The lime milk favours the
coagulation due alcalization of the water up to pH value equal to 8–9.
Next coagulation efficiency of eight PAX reagents have been examined. It
was found that the best coagulants for removing iron ions are the PAX
XL 60 and PAX 1881–25–2 reagents used together with the lime milk. They
ensure the best results with regard to both speed and efficiency of iron
removing from water of Wda river and are recommended to use in the
spring and summer months.
Key words: removing iron from water, iron coagulants, aluminium coagulants, PIX, PAX
M. Świderska1, D. Ziółkowska1, O. Shyichuk1, M. Kukliński2 str. 144
Stan i znaczenie lasów glebochronnych na przykładzie Nadleśnictwa Szubin
STATE AND IMPORTANCE OF SOIL–PROTECTING FORESTS ON EXAMPLE OF SZUBIN FOREST INSPECTORATE
degradation of the soil environment are forcing to practice
anti–erosion measures. Forest vegetation is making the most effective
natural anti–erosion protection. Along with civilization development
perceiving the role of forest in the environment and human life changed.
With time woodland started to be separated and allot new, protective
functions. This article presents state of soil–protecting forests on
example of the Szubin Forest Inspectorate, which is located for the most
part in Kujawy–Pomerania and partly in Wielkopolska provinces. This
article also describes importance of forests in the water and wind
Key words: soil–protecting forest, forest inspectorate, soil erosion, anti–erosion protection
P. Wiśniewski, M. Wojtasik
Ocena stanu mikrobiologicznego i aktywności dehydrogenaz w glebie o zróżnicowanej zawartości materii organicznej, inokulowanej szczepionką Efektywnych Mikroorganizmów (EM)
ESTIMATION OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL STATE AND DEHYDROGENASES ACTIVITY OF SOIL WITH DIVERSITY OF ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT, INOCULATED EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS (EM)
effect of different doses of microbiological inocula containing
Effective Microorganisms (EM) and muck on the microbiological
properties and enzymatic activity was determined. A laboratory
experiment was carried out on mineral soil with the texture of sand
loam. Microbiological analyses consisted in the determination by plate
method on selective medium the total number of bacteria, actinomycetes
and molds. Furthermore, in the experiment, the activity levels of
dehydrogenases were determined using 1% triphenyltetrazole chloride as
substratum. The results obtained indicated positively effects of the EM
inocula and muck on the total bacteria number, actinomyces and fungi.
The level of dehydrogenases activity in the analyse soil combinations was depended on the size of used doses muck and Effective Microorganisms.
Key words: microorganisms, dehydrogenases activity, EM inocula, soil, muck
A. Wolna–Maruwka1, Z. Karczmarek2 str. 156
Testing the power of multi–disc shredding grains of rice
BADANIE MOCY WIELOTARCZOWEGO ROZDRABNIANIA ZIAREN RYŻU
Rozdrabnianie materiałów biologicznych jest procesem energochłonnym. W trakcie dekohezji ziarna występuje złożony stan naprężeń wywołany; ściskaniem, skręcaniem, zginaniem, rozrywaniem, pękaniem, ścieraniem czy wreszcie ścinaniem. W pracy podjęto się poszukiwania sprzężeń i wskaźników regulacji – sterowania procesem w kierunku podwyższenia funkcjonalności, tj.: obniżania zapotrzebowania na moc rozdrabniania.
Słowa kluczowe: rozdrabnianie, moc rozdrabniania
A. Tomporowski str. 162